I think it’s safe to say that there are some misconceptions in physics. The issue of course, is how many. That’s where I part company with your average physicist. He’ll tell you that whilst we don’t understand everything, we do understand some things, such as black holes. Only he doesn’t. Take a look at the Wikipedia black hole article. It says this: “a black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing – no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light – can escape from it”. That’s totally in line with what people like Stephen Hawking said, so what’s the problem? The problem is it’s totally wrong, because it’s built on a misconception. Physics is just dripping with such misconceptions. There’s so very many that I’m going to have to tell you about them one slab at a time, starting with gravitational physics.
There is no travelling through time
It all starts with Einstein’s operational definition of time: time is that which a clock measures. And what does a clock really measure? A clock isn’t some cosmic gas meter that measures the literal flow of time. When you open up a clock you don’t see time flowing through it. A clock is a contraption that features some kind of regular cyclical motion. The thing we call “the time” is merely a cumulative measure of that motion. So time is a dimension in the sense of measure, not in the sense of freedom of movement. So I can hop forward a metre but you can’t hop forward a second. So time isn’t on a par with space. That’s why there’s a minus sign on the t term in the spacetime interval. We can’t travel through a measure of motion, so time travel is out of the question. Yes, I know people say you can travel forward in time via time dilation, but that’s just a figure of speech. To understand why, note that time dilation is taken to extremis in the fictional stasis box. When you’re in it you don’t move at all. Meanwhile everything else does. So you “travel” to the future by not travelling at all. Then since there’s no such thing as negative motion, time travel to the past is a fantasy. There is no way you can move such that all other things not only move back to where they were, but never moved at all. And yet Kip Thorne waxes lyrical about time machines. This is Kip Thorne of Misner Thorne and Wheeler, the “bible“ of gravitational physics. His supervisor and co-author John Archibald Wheeler thought a positron was an electron travelling backwards through time.
There is no motion through spacetime
Thorne and Wheeler weren’t the only physicists coming out with this sort of thing. See Stephen Hawking’s 1978 article on black holes and unpredictability. That’s where Hawking said “one could think of the member of the pair which fell into the hole (say, the antiparticle) as being a particle that was travelling backwards in time”. Hawking was of course the author of a brief history of time and how to build a time machine. He came up with the chronology protection conjecture because he didn’t know why time travel to the past was a fantasy. Because he didn’t know that we don’t really travel to the future. Because he didn’t know that time was a cumulative measure of motion. Instead he thought time flowed like a river, and that closed time-like curves offered a way to travel to the past. That’s why he said “it seems that there is a Chronology Protection Agency which prevents the appearance of closed timelike curves and so makes the universe safe for historians”. He thought you could travel along a world line. You can’t, because spacetime is a mathematical abstraction which models space at all times. So spacetime is static. So there’s no motion in spacetime. That’s the nasty little truth about spacetime physics. It means there’s no motion along a world line, whether it’s closed or not. So you can’t travel along a closed timelike curve to visit the past. Palle Yourgrau pointed this out on page 142 of A World Without Time, saying Wheeler conflated a circle with a cycle. A closed timelike curve isn’t something real. It isn’t some highway to yesterday. The “golden age” physicists thought it was, because they got lost in maths. They forgot that the map is not the territory. They fell at the first hurdle, because they didn’t understand the nature of time, and it was all downhill from there.
The speed of light is not constant
The next misconception was a direct consequence of misunderstanding time. It concerns the speed of light, and it’s massive. Like Billy Bob Thornton said in said in Armageddon, it’s the size of Texas. Your average physicist will tell you the speed of light is constant. However when you understand time you know that the speed of light is not constant. If you had a clockwork clock that was going slow, you’d know that it was due to some issue with the mechanism. Not because time was going slow inside the clock. In similar vein an optical clock goes slower when it’s lower because light goes slower when it’s lower. Your average physicist will deny this, and say Einstein showed us that the speed of light is constant. That isn’t true either. Einstein said the speed of light is constant when he was doing special relativity in 1905. That’s due to the wave nature of matter: see the other meaning of special relativity by Robert Close. But by 1907 Einstein was saying the speed of light varies with gravitational potential. He said it again in 1911. Take a look at an old version of the Wikipedia Variable Speed of Light article, and you can read that he abandoned the idea in 1912. That’s something else that isn’t true. Einstein didn’t abandon the idea, ever. He kept talking about it, in 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1920. He said “the curvature of light rays occurs only in spaces where the speed of light is spatially variable”. This shouldn’t be a surprise. Irwin Shapiro was talking about the variable speed of light in 1964. In his famous Shapiro delay paper he said “the speed of a light wave depends on the strength of the gravitational potential along its path”. And yet you can find people saying the unchanging speed of light in a vacuum is a foundational fact of relativity.
The speed of light is defined to be constant, but it isn’t constant
I should say that not all physicists think the speed of light in vacuo is constant. See Is The Speed of Light Everywhere the Same? It’s a PhysicsFAQ editor Don Koks, and the answer is no. Koks says Einstein talked about the speed of light varying with gravitational potential. He also says the global observer will say that light at the ceiling travels faster than light at the floor. Also see John Moffat and João Magueijo’s Comments on “Note on varying speed of light theories”. That’s where they talked about the tautology. The tautology is where the local motion of light is used to define the second and the metre, which are then used to measure the local motion of light. Duh! It doesn’t matter how fast the light is moving, you will always say the speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s. The speed of light is defined to be constant, but it isn’t constant. This is Humpty Dumpty physics. This is the height of stupidity. This one thing alone is enough to tell you that physics is an idiocracy.
Light doesn’t follow the curvature of spacetime
It gets worse, because your average physicist doesn’t know how gravity works. He doesn’t even know why light curves. He thinks it’s because light follows the curvature of spacetime. It doesn’t. Einstein never said that. He referred to Huygen’s principle and talked about “the refraction of light rays by the gravitational field”. So did Newton, see Opticks query 20. Light curves like any wave curves, because there’s an orthogonal gradient in wave speed. Hence “the curvature of light rays occurs only in spaces where the speed of light is spatially variable”. The speed of sound in air typically decreases with increasing altitude, so sound waves tend to get refracted upwards. The speed of sound in the ocean typically decreases with depth, so sonar waves tend to get refracted downwards. The waves “veer” rather like a car veers when it encounters mud at the side of the road. The mud slows down the wheels on the left, so the car pulls to the left. You steer a tank to the left in a similar fashion, by slowing down the track on the left. Don’t just take my word for it. See Ned Wright’s article on the Deflection and Delay of Light: “In a very real sense, the delay experienced by light passing a massive object is responsible for the deflection of the light”. That’s Professor Ned Wright. Some physicists do know the truth, but not enough.
Light doesn’t curve because spacetime is curved
As to how this fits in with curved spacetime, imagine you placed a 15 x 15 array of optical clocks throughout a horizontal slice of space around the Earth. Then you plot all the clock rates, such that the lower slower clock rates generate data points lower down in a 3D image, and the higher faster clock rates generate data points higher up. When you join the dots, your plot looks like the rubber-sheet image from the Wikipedia Riemann curvature tensor page:
CCASA image by Johnstone, see Wikipedia
This is your typical curved spacetime depiction. Because it’s derived from optical clock rates, it’s also a plot of the speed of light. It’s also a plot of gravitational potential at the various locations. The slope at some location depicts the first derivative of gravitational potential, and therefore the force of gravity at that location. The curvature at some location depicts the second derivative of gravitational potential, and therefore the tidal force at that location. The important thing to note is that light curves wherever the force of gravity is non-zero. That’s where the sheet is sloping. So light doesn’t curve because spacetime is curved. Curved spacetime is merely a change in the gradient of the speed of light. It’s only there because the gradient reduces with distance in line with the inverse square rule. It’s the gradient that counts, not the curvature. Take a look at the room you’re in. The force of gravity is 9.8 m/s² at the floor and at the ceiling, so there’s no detectable tidal force, and so no detectable spacetime curvature. But your pencil still falls down. That’s detectable. So is a difference in NIST optical clock rates. The lower clock goes slower because light goes slower when it’s lower. That’s why light curves downwards. That’s why your pencil falls down.
Curved spacetime is not curved space and curved time
Once you know why light curves, you know that the usual story is wrong. In A brief history of relativity, Hawking said objects like apples or planets would try to move on straight lines through space-time, but their paths would appear bent by a gravitational field because space-time is curved. This is wrong on multiple counts. For starters, there is no motion through spacetime. Spacetime models space at all times, and is static. The motion is through space. You might then think that space is curved in a gravitational field. It isn’t. Curved spacetime is not curved space and curved time. In his 1920 Leyden Address Einstein described a gravitational field as a place where space is “neither homogeneous nor isotropic”. It’s like this because a concentration of energy in the guise of a massive star alters the surrounding space, this effect diminishing with distance. I think the best way to understand this is to take note of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, which “describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime”:
Public domain image by Maschen, based on an image by Bamse see Wikipedia
I also think it’s better to think in terms of space rather than spacetime, but no matter. The shear stress term on the right tells you we’re dealing with something like an elastic solid. The energy-pressure diagonal tells you it’s an elastic solid subject to pressure. So imagine you have a block of gin-clear ghostly elastic jelly, with grid lines in it. You slide a hypodermic needle into the centre of the block, and inject more jelly. This represents a concentration of energy bound up as the matter of a massive star. It sets up a pressure gradient in the surrounding jelly. Stress is directional pressure, the pressure is outwards, and Einstein’s equation Gμν = 8πTμν is modelling the way gin-clear ghostly elastic space is conditioned by the energy you added. It really is that simple. Even Newton knew about this:
Fair use excerpt from Newton’s views on aether and gravitation by Léon Rosenfeld 1969
Notice how the word aether is mentioned in the excerpt above? All this talk of elastic space sounds like some kind of aether, doesn’t it? That’s got to be wrong, surely? Because Einstein dispensed with the aether, didn’t he?
Einstein didn’t dispense with the aether
No he didn’t. He said the luminiferous aether was unnecessary in 1905, but his 1920 Leyden Address was on Ether and the Theory of Relativity. He said this: “according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether”. Einstein didn’t dispense with the aether. That’s why in his 1929 essay on the history of field theory, Einstein described a field as a state of space. That’s why in his Nottingham lecture in 1930 he said space “remains the sole medium of reality”. Don’t think all this is old hat. Take a look at the Wikipedia aether theories article where Robert B Laughlin said this: “it is ironic that Einstein’s most creative work, the general theory of relativity, should boil down to conceptualizing space as a medium when his original premise [in special relativity] was that no such medium existed”. Laughlin also said the modern concept of the vacuum of space is a relativistic ether.
Matter doesn’t fall down because it follows a geodesic
Anyway, once you know that matter doesn’t fall down because it follows a geodesic, it’s quite easy to work out the real reason. All you need to know about is the wave nature of matter and the Einstein-de Haas effect which “demonstrates that spin angular momentum is indeed of the same nature as the angular momentum of rotating bodies”. Of course, it helps if you know about pair production, where we can make an electron and a positron out of light. And about Hans Ohanian’s 1984 paper what is spin? He said this: “the means for filling the gap have been at hand since 1939, when Belinfante established that the spin could be regarded as due to a circulating flow of energy”. So just think of an electron as light going around and around. Then simplify it to light going around a square path. In a gravitational field, the vertical component of the path stays vertical, but the horizontal component curves down a little. So the electron is displaced. In other words, it falls down:
It really is that simple. When it’s in inhomogeneous space, matter falls down because of the wave nature of matter. Guys like Albrecht Giese and Reg Norgan have known this for years. Reg told me, now I’m telling you. But for some strange reason, here we are a hundred years after Einstein’s general relativity, and the average physicist still doesn’t know it. He tells you fairy tales instead.
The principle of equivalence doesn’t apply at all
He also tells you fairy tales about the equivalence principle. On Wikipedia you can read that “being on the surface of the Earth is equivalent to being inside a spaceship (far from any sources of gravity) that is being accelerated by its engines”. It isn’t, because standing still in inhomogeneous space is not the same as accelerating through homogeneous space. It might feel similar, but like Wikipedia says, the room has to be small enough so that “tidal forces may be neglected”. And as for how small, note that Einstein said the special theory of relativity is “nowhere precisely realized in the real world”. He said it’s only valid “in the infinitesimal”. Your room has to be an infinitesimal room for the principle of equivalence to apply. So it doesn’t apply at all. This is why John Synge said the equivalence principle performed the essential office of midwife at the birth of general relativity, but should “be buried with appropriate honours”. It was Einstein’s ticket to understanding, to be discarded at his destination. And yet the Eötvös experiment is said to be a test of the equivalence principle. Only it tested whether different materials were equally affected by gravity. That’s the weak equivalence principle, not Einstein’s equivalence principle. If you think that’s confusing, note that the Einstein equivalence principle is where “the outcome of any local non-gravitational experiment in a freely falling laboratory is independent of the velocity of the laboratory”. That isn’t Einstein’s equivalence principle either. John D Norton talked about this in his 1985 paper what was Einstein’s principle of equivalence? He said it was a special relativity principle that dealt only with fields that could be transformed away. He talked of an old view and a new view, and said “the equivalence of all frames embodied in this new view goes well beyond the result that Einstein himself claimed in 1916”. This new view is wrong. We don’t have gamma ray bursters for nothing.
Invariant mass is a myth
Something else that’s wrong is invariant mass. When you throw a brick up in the air you do work on it. You give it kinetic energy. Whilst conservation of momentum means there is an effect on the Earth, it’s so slight we can ignore it. As the brick ascends it slows down, because gravity converts the brick’s kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy. Note that this gravitational potential energy is in the brick, not anywhere else. You did work on the brick. There is no magical mysterious mechanism by which energy streams out of the brick. It merely gets converted into potential energy, which is in the brick. This potential energy is mass-energy. Hence when the brick is at the top of its arc, its mass is greater. Then when the brick falls back to Earth the situation is reversed. Gravity converts potential energy, which is mass-energy, into kinetic energy. Once the brick hits the ground the kinetic energy gets dissipated, and you end up with a mass deficit. Hence the mass of the brick at rest on the ground is less than the mass of the brick at the top of its arc. The same applies to an electron. Its rest mass varies with elevation, so invariant mass is a myth.
The zero-energy universe is just another myth
Another myth is that gravitational field energy is negative. On page 82 of his 2002 book The Theory of Everything, Stephen Hawking said this: “in a sense the gravitational field has negative energy. In the case of the whole universe, one can show that this negative gravitational energy exactly cancels the positive energy of the matter, so the total energy of the universe is zero”. It isn’t true. In his 1916 Foundation of General Relativity Einstein said “the energy of the gravitational field shall act gravitatively in the same way as any other kind of energy”. Gravitational field energy is positive. When you drop a 1kg brick into a black hole, then gamma-ray bursters apart, the black hole mass increases by 1kg. It would be similar if you dropped all the stars and planets and everything else into a single supermassive black hole. Hence the zero-energy universe is just another myth.
The ascending photon does not lose energy
Then there’s gravitational redshift. See page 149 of Relativity, the Special and General Theory. Note what Einstein said: “an atom absorbs or emits light at a frequency which is dependent on the potential of the gravitational field in which it is situated“. When the ascending photon ascends, its E=hf energy does not reduce, and nor does its frequency. There is no magical mysterious mechanism by which energy streams out from the photon to somewhere else. It doesn’t get redshifted at all. The photon was emitted at the lower frequency at a lower elevation. Conservation of energy applies. It appears to have less energy at the higher elevation because that’s where optical clocks go faster, along with everything else. When I lift you up I do work on you. I add energy to you. So you measure the photon frequency to be reduced, even though it didn’t change frequency.
A gravitational field doesn’t drag light back, au contraire, the ascending photon speeds up
That brings me on to Stephen Hawking’s 1966 paper on singularities and the geometry of spacetime dating from 1966. On page 76 he talked of “such a strong gravitational field that even the ‘outgoing’ light rays from it are dragged back”. This is incorrect, because a gravitational field is a place where the speed of light is spatially variable. It varies in the room you’re in. That’s why your pencil falls down. The speed of light at the ceiling is greater than the speed of light at the floor. You know what that means? PhysicsFAQ editor Don Koks tells it like it is: “light speeds up as it ascends from floor to ceiling, and it slows down as it descends from ceiling to floor”. Yes, a gravitational field doesn’t drag light back, au contraire, the ascending photon speeds up. In a strong gravitational field, it doesn’t get dragged back, it speeds up even more. That means just about everything you think you know about black holes is wrong.
The waterfall analogy is junk
That includes the waterfall analogy, as peddled on Horizon by Mad Max Tegmark. That’s where space is falling inward so the ascending photon doesn’t make any upward progress. It’s derived from Gullstrand-Painlevé coordinates, which Einstein rejected for good reason: the waterfall analogy is not in accord with the general theory of relativity. Do not give credence to any experiment which employs the waterfall analogy. In no sense is space falling inwards in a gravitational field. We do not live in some Chicken-Little world where the sky is falling in. A gravitational field alters the motion of light through space, it doesn’t suck space down into some cosmic plughole. Because as Einstein said in his 1920 Leyden Address, a gravitational field is a place where space is “neither homogeneous nor isotropic”. That means the waterfall analogy is junk.
The light doesn’t curve back into a black hole
That’s not the only thing that’s junk. Some people will tell you that the light can’t get out of a black hole because all straight lines are curved such that they point inwards towards the black hole. But imagine you’re standing on a gedanken planet shining a laser beam straight up into space. The light goes straight up. It doesn’t curve round, and it doesn’t fall back down. Now imagine it’s a denser more massive planet. The light still goes straight up. It still doesn’t curve round, and it still doesn’t fall back down. But when we make our gedanken planet so massive that it’s a black hole, light can’t get out, because somewhere along the line it somehow started curving round? That’s lies to children. So why doesn’t the light get out? When you understand the nature of time, you know why time dilation goes infinite at the event horizon. It isn’t because some abstract thing called time stops. It’s because light stops. Because the “coordinate” speed of light at the event horizon is zero. That’s why the light doesn’t get out of the black hole. That’s why a black hole is black. Only Einstein didn’t talk about the “coordinate” speed of light. He talked about the speed of light.
The Schwarzschild singularity is not just a bad choice of coordinates
Einstein wrote a paper in 1939 paper on a stationary system with spherical symmetry consisting of many gravitating masses. He said “g44 = (1 – μ/2r / 1 + μ/2r)² vanishes for r = μ/2. This means that a clock kept at this place would go at the rate zero”. He also said “In this sense the sphere r = μ/2 constitutes a place where the field is singular”. He was talking about the event horizon, and said it would take light rays an infinitely long time to reach it. He thought of the thing we now call the event horizon as the black hole singularity. That squared with Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder’s 1939 “frozen star” paper on continued gravitational contraction. Like Remo Ruffini and John Wheeler said in their 1971 article introducing the black hole, “in this sense the system is a frozen star”. That’s good. But see Hawking’s 1966 paper on singularities and the geometry of spacetime. On page 26 he referred to the Schwarzschild metric and the “apparent” singularity at r=2m. He said it was “simply due to a bad choice of coordinates”. No it isn’t. Because when light stops, gravitational time dilation is infinite, and nothing happens, ever. However this seems to have escaped notice by some.
The frozen star can grow like a hailstone
Some would say that the frozen-star black hole can’t be correct because nothing passes through the event horizon, and therefore black holes cannot grow. But think of a hailstone. A hailstone doesn’t grow because water molecules pass through its surface. Imagine you’re a water molecule. You alight upon the surface of the hailstone. You can’t pass through the surface, but you are presently surrounded by other water molecules, and eventually buried by them. So whilst you can’t pass through the surface, the surface can pass through you. The frozen star black hole can grow like a hailstone.
The infalling body doesn’t go to the end of time and back
Remember that word “frozen”, then take a look at the Wikipedia article on the propagation of light in non-inertial reference frames. It says this: “at the event horizon of a black hole the coordinate speed of light is zero”. That’s good. However the article then says “the local instantaneous proper speed of light is always c”. There’s a schoolboy error there of biblical proportions. You can see where it goes in Kevin Brown’s mathpages article the formation and growth of black holes. He talks about an object falling into a black hole, and says this: “the object goes infinitely far into the “future” (of coordinate time), and then infinitely far back to the “present”. The infalling body goes to the end of time and back again! You might think Kevin was just having a bad day there, but take a look at figure 32.1 of MTW:
Image by W H Freeman and company, publishers of Gravitation
The curve on the right denotes the infalling body outside the event horizon, which is represented by the vertical dashed line. The infalling body gets closer and closer to the event horizon as the time increases. Note that the time axis is truncated, obscuring the way the infalling body somehow manages to cross the event horizon at time t = infinity. Then it somehow comes back down the chart, tracing out the curve to the left. According to MTW an infalling body goes to the end of time and back. Not only that but if you look horizontally across the Schwarzschild chart at time t = 45, you’ll notice that the infalling body is at two locations at the same time. That’s why you can read about the elephant and the event horizon by Leonard Susskind, where the elephant is in two places at once. This is abject nonsense.
There are no point singularities
If you thought that was bad, MTW also refers to Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates, which appear to have been invented by Roger Penrose. They employ “tortoise coordinates” where the time unit gets bigger and bigger as you approach the black hole. Hence it allegedly cancels out the gravitational time dilation. Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates are similar. They are “well behaved” because they sweep the crucial issue under the carpet. The conclusion is then that a star collapses to a singular point of infinite density in finite time. There’s just one little problem with that: light curves and an infalling body falls down because the speed of light is spatially variable. But at the event horizon the speed of light is zero and it can’t go lower than that. So there is no more gravity. So there are no point singularities. Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates are like some ludicrous dead parrot sketch, where the shopkeeper swears that a dead customer sees the dead parrot squawking normally. So the singularity at the event horizon is not just a coordinate singularity. You can’t get past it by inventing a fantasy coordinate system where seconds last forever.
There are no pathways to another place and time
That’s not the only fantasy. The Kerr metric was “discovered” by Roy Kerr in 1963. It is said to describe the spacetime around an uncharged rotating black hole. However Kerr black holes are associated with negative spaces along with wormholes, other universes, and time travel. Knowing what you do now, do you seriously think that you can fall towards a massive body, then end up at another time and place just because that body is spinning? Next time you see an article that says a black hole spins at nearly the speed of light, remember that at the event horizon, the speed of light is zero. That creates a little problem for the Kerr black hole. And for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. That’s a charged black hole, which just doesn’t work when you know what charge is. A charged particle like an electron has a Poynting-vector energy flow going around and around at the speed of light. But at the event horizon this speed is zero. But since Reissner-Nordstrom black holes are associated with naked singularities and one-way wormholes they’re a fantasy too. Ditto for Penrose diagrams which plot the route to the parallel antiverse. I am amazed that anybody took them seriously for a moment. It’s like believing that the furnace door is the gateway to paradise.
There aren’t three singularities inside a black hole
However some physicists expect you to believe this trash. Take a look at the Kip Thorne interview What goes on inside a black hole. He said “What we [physicists] know is this: There are three singularities inside a black hole”. He said one is “a singularity in which there’s a chaotic oscillation of the stretching and squeezing of space”. Another one is what he called the in-falling singularity, where “everything that falls in after you over the entire life of the universe is seen by you”. Last but not least is “the up-flying singularity”. Thorne said it “was discovered just a couple of years ago”. Apparently this is the shockwave singularity which was “discovered” by Donald Marolf and Amos Ori in a 2011 paper. Kip Thorne also said this “is the singularity that the character Cooper encounters in the movie Interstellar”. That’s how Cooper catches a ride home. It’s all pseudoscience horseshіt. Beware of people who tell you something was “discovered”. If they’re talking about a nugget of gold, or America, no problem. If they’re talking about an upflying singularity, check your wallet and count your fingers.
There is no Hawking radiation
It’s the same for Hawking radiation. Hawking’s “discovery” followed a visit to Moscow in 1973. But if you’ve ever taken a close look at Hawking radiation and read the Hawking papers you realise it’s garbage. See black hole explosions? which appeared in Nature in 1974. Hawking said “since then the calculations have been repeated in a number of different forms by other people. They all confirm that a black hole ought to emit particles and radiation as if it were a hot body with a temperature that depends only on the black hole’s mass”. Unfortunately none of these other people included gravitational time dilation in their calculations. Hawking later said “one can think of the fluctuations as pairs of particles that appear together, move apart, and then come together again and annihilate each other”. He also said one of the particles will have positive energy, and the other will have negative energy. Unfortunately in the real world particles do not pop into existence spontaneously, like worms from mud. Nor are there any negative-energy particles. This is presumably why Hawking offered an alternative explanation in his 1978 article on black holes and unpredictability. That’s he said this: “one could think of the member of the pair which fell into the hole (say, the antiparticle) as being a particle that was travelling backwards in time. It would come from the singularity and would travel backwards in time out of the black hole to the point where the particle-antiparticle pair first appeared. There it would be scattered by the gravitational field into a particle travelling forwards in time”. It’s yet more garbage. I’m afraid Hawking radiation is lies to children. A whole pack of them.
There is no information paradox, holographic principle, or black hole complementarity
That’s why there is no information paradox. Hawking said information is lost down a black hole because the quantum emission is completely random and uncorrelated. But if there is no quantum emission, there is no loss of information. So there is no information paradox. Nor is there any holographic principle. It’s “a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region”. It’s the same for black hole complementarity, not to mention strings and branes and baby universes and parallel universes and the assertion that the physical world is made of information. Stuff like this comes from quacks and charlatans peddling Emperor’s New Clothes pseudoscience with the help of a complaint media. They’re part of the woo trade too. However there’s still some serious stuff to think about. Such as the mechanism by which one black hole falls towards another. And things like dark matter. Mind you I think dark matter is easy when you know about inhomogeneous space and the raisin-cake analogy. The firewall is easy too. Not the AMPS firewall, the original firewall. The one Einstein should have predicted, because falling bodies don’t slow down. See Friedwardt Winterberg’s 2001 paper gamma ray bursters and Lorentzian relativity. The nub of it is this: “if the balance of forces holding together elementary particles is destroyed near the event horizon, all matter would be converted into zero rest mass particles”. He’s right, because like Einstein said, a gravitational field is a place where the speed of light is “spatially variable”. So matter falls down faster and faster. But eventually it would be falling faster than the local speed of light. The wave nature of light means that can’t happen, so something else has to happen. It’s got to be a gamma ray burst. Funnily enough, it was gamma ray bursts that sparked renewed interest in general relativity in the 1960s. What a pity they turned it into some ersatz zombie doppelganger version of the real thing.